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Understanding and Choosing Information for Your Assignments
- Keep in mind that no one source is necessarily always reliable or always unreliable.
- You can find reliable information in many places and formats -- the library, the web, eBooks, print books, popular and scholarly sources.
- Get into the habit of critically assessing each article, book, video, or other source.
The resources on this page will help you examine information carefully. Visit UC Berkeley library's helpful guide to Weeding Out BS (Bad Sources) and learn to avoid "falling victim to BS" by considering the source, the context, and the platform where the information is being shared.
One excellent model for evaluating information is the SIFT method at Mike Caulfield's Infodemic blog --
Investigate the Source
Find Better Coverage
Trace Claims, Quotes & Media to their original source.
Identifying and Stopping Misinformation
Recognizing COVID-19 Misinformation - a pop-up info lit mini-course
While this guide is meant to help people understand Information Disorder and use information literacy skills to recognize and stop the spread of COVID misinformation, information literacy can actually help stop all kinds of misinformation. Explore the mini-course and empower yourself!
Together, we can make a difference by making the world safer and saner, by identifying and refusing to share or publish inaccurate, false, or misleading information.
Is It Biased or Just Different than What I Know?
We hear the term "fake news" often, but what is more common is "confirmation bias" -- seeking information that we agree with, or that reinforces what we already know and believe.
So how do you decide what is true? Or what is biased? Some pointers:
Consider the source itself, not whether it matches what you know or believe.
- Think about who wrote or published the information, and why, and how claims are supported.
- See "What Makes a Source Good?" on this page.
Examine your own biases.
- Bias means preferring certain views, unfairly or reflexively (without thinking).
- This is unavoidable, but we can learn to consider other viewpoints carefully.
Read articles from different perspectives and think critically about the point of view of each article or news source.
- A broader understanding helps you see where your views fit in the big picture.
- A more complete understanding can help you speak or write clearly about a topic.
Three helpful resources:
Filter Bubbles from AllSides.com
News Literacy from University of Louisville Library
Six Questions That Will Tell You What Media to Trust from The American Press Institute
Beware of balance bias
Beware of "balance bias"
- One prevalent form of misinformation today is balance bias. The media often attempts to present a "balanced" view of an issue by presenting two or more sides that are nowhere near equal in terms of the evidence supporting them.
- When balance bias is at its worst, positions that are not supported by evidence or that are understood by researchers to be "fringe" views appear in the same article as information which has established scientific or research consensus.
- This is confusing for readers and creates a false sense of balance between scientifically sound, evidence-based information and unsubstantiated views.
Why Do Our Brains Love Fake News?
Who Funded the Research?
You've probably read news articles about companies funding research that supports their industry. If you need help determining who funded research, ask a librarian. We're here to help!
What Makes a Source Good?
What is a "good" source? There is no one right answer to this. Ask yourself
Is it relevant to your topic?
- How will this information fit into your paper or presentation?
Is it up-to-date?
- How up to date do you need it to be?
- Don't overlook an older source if the information is still valid.
Does it include references to other information or sources?
- In an article, are claims supported by facts or data? (Learn about the fact checking technique lateral reading.)
- In an academic paper, are study methods explained, and do results seem to support study conclusions?
- In an opinion piece, do facts support arguments, and do other sources report the same facts?
Is it authoritative?
- Is the author a professional or an expert, or do they talk to and/or cite experts? (Find out more about evaluating expertise.)
- Is the source respected in its field or well known for its quality?
- Does the source have an editor?
What is its perspective?
- Is the source's tone professional?
- Does the source present well-reasoned or well-researched information?
Why was it created?
- Is the author or source trying to persuade? Inform? Advocate? Sell something?
Who is the intended audience of your source? Who is your intended audience?
- Sometimes you'll need peer-reviewed, evidence-based research or academic sources (for example, in the sciences and health).
- Sometimes, you'll be summarizing views on a topic and might need a wide variety of popular, professional, and academic sources.
Some professors refer to the CRAAP test. Learn more about this tool from University of California, San Diego.
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