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Citing Sources: APA

APA Publication Manual

Examples of APA References

Based on Publication Manual, 6th Edition, 2010

Journal Article with DOI (see section 7.01 1., pg. 198)


Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status,
     and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24,
    225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article with DOI, more than seven authors (see section 7.01 2., pg. 198)


Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C.,
    Asgaard, G., ...Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG
    activation and attention last more than 31 days and are more
    severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits.
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267.

Journal Article without DOI (see section 7.01 3., pg. 199)

Print Example:

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican
    immigration in the United States and its implications for local law
    enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Online Example:

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem
    mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness.
    E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Newspaper article (see section 7.01 10. & 11., pg. 200)

Print Example:

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.
    The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Online Example:

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The
    New York Times.
Retrieved from

Entire book, print (see section 7.02 18., pg. 203)


Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of a print book (see section 7.02 19., pg. 203)


O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Electronic-only book (see section 7.02 21., pg. 203)


Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer
[DX Reader version]. Retrieved from

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A
    guide to healing, recovery, and growth
[Adobe Digital Editions version].

Book chapter, print (see section 7.02 25., pg. 204)


Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being.
    In M Eid & R. J. Larson (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.
    17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Reference book, print (see section 7.02 27., pg 204)


VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington,
    DC: American Psychological Association.

Entry in an online reference work (see section 7.02 29. & 30., pg. 205)


Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford
    encyclopedia of philosophy
(Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved

More APA Help

APA Blog - Clarification about APA Style

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What is a DOI?

APA  citation style requires the use of DOI's (Digital Object Identifiers) for all resources that have originated online. Articles found in library databases that were originally published in printed journals or magazines should be cited as PRINT articles. Articles found in library databases or on the Web that were originally published online should include a DOI. Many databases will provide the DOI for you along with the rest of an article's citation information (title, author, etc.). 

However, if you cannot find a DOI for your article, or if you have a DOI, but don't know what article it is for, use the following online DOI Resolver:  

If you are unable to determine the DOI of an article that originated online and NOT in print, simply include "Retrieved from" and the URL address of website at the end of the PRINT citation.

Free Citation Tools

Free apps and online tools can create reference lists, works cited, bibliographies, etc. in different citation styles.

Double check the results you get using these tools. Remember as well that these sources are only as good as the information you type in to them! Also check that they reflect the latest version of MLA (8th edition).

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